Polymer compounds

Polymer compounds

Polymer compounds are materials that are created by mixing the polymer with various additives such as masterbatch and powder to improve their properties. These additives can include fillers, reinforcements, pigments, stabilizers, lubricants, and other substances.

The purpose of adding polymer compounds to plastic materials is to improve their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties for specific applications. For example, fillers can be used to reduce the cost of raw materials or increase the strength of the composite. Reinforcements such as glass or carbon fibers can be added to increase the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. Pigments are added to the composite to create the desired color. Stabilizers protect the polymer from degradation caused by sunlight, heat, and other environmental factors. Lubricants are added to reduce friction between polymer particles and improve composite processability. To know the sale price of polymer compound, contact the sales office of Kaysa Polymer Company at +982122500033.

Table of content

What is a polymer compound?

Polymer compound is a combination of polymer materials such as polyethylene and polypropylene grades along with other additives that are combined with each other in order to improve the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of plastic products. These compounds are usually produced in the form of granules and are used in the composition of various polymer products. This composition can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

A polymer compound can include different polymers that are combined simultaneously or gradually to create desired properties. These compounds can include high-temperature polymers, transparent or semi-transparent polymers, corrosion resistant and waterproof polymers.

The purpose of making polymer compounds is to achieve specific physical, chemical, and mechanical properties for different applications. Polymer compounds are used in various industries such as automotive, construction, packaging, electronics, and medicine. The design and production of these compounds require knowledge and experience in the field of polymers, additives, and processing processes.

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How is the polymer compound produced?

The production of polymer compounds includes steps in which the raw materials are mixed with each other and subjected to various processes in order to achieve the final product with the desired properties. Polymer compounds are usually produced through various processes that include the following steps:

Selection of the base polymer: The selection of the appropriate base polymer is based on the desired properties such as temperature, chemical resistance, mechanical properties, etc. These polymers can be different types such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, etc.
Selection and weighing of additives: The required additives, which can include fillers, reinforcers, pigments, stabilizers, lubricants, flame retardants, etc., are selected and carefully weighed. The choice of raw materials depends on the final properties desired for the compound.
Compounding: The base polymer and additives are mixed in a rotary mixer or extruder to obtain a uniform mixture. The purpose of this step is to distribute additives uniformly in the polymer matrix.
Granulation (Pelletizing): The mixture obtained from the previous step is injected into the extruder until it is melted and homogenized under pressure and heat. Then it is made into small grains (pellets) by a granulator.
Cooling and drying: The compound coming out of the extruder is cooled and cut to the desired dimensions.
Packaging and storage: The final polymer compound is packaged and stored for further use or processing.

The compounding process can be done using different equipment such as roller extruders, screw extruders, rotary mixers, etc. Parameters such as temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, and the order of adding ingredients are very important to achieve a compound with the desired quality.

Structural features of the compound

The structure of polymer compounds consists of three main components:

  1. Polymer matrix:
    The polymer matrix is ​​the main component of the compound, which includes and binds other components.
    The matrix can be different types of polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, etc.
    The properties of the polymer matrix, such as strength, hardness, flexibility, and thermal resistance, have a significant effect on the overall properties of the compound.
  2. additives:
    Additives are substances that are added to the polymer matrix to impart certain properties to the final compound.
    There are different types of additives, each of which has its own use.
    Some of the most common additives include:
    Reinforcements: such as glass fibers, carbon, or metal, are used to increase the strength and hardness of the compound.
    Fillers: such as calcium carbonate or talc, are used to reduce the price, increase the weight, or improve the process properties of the compound.
    Pigments: used to create color in the compound.
    Stabilizers: used to protect the compound from degradation caused by sunlight, UV rays, heat, or chemicals.
    Lubricants: are used to reduce friction and improve compound processability.
    Flame retardants (flame retardant): used to reduce the risk of compound ignition.
  3. Adapting factor:

A compatibilizing agent is a substance that is used to improve the adhesion between the polymer matrix and the additives. This makes the additives evenly distributed in the matrix and prevents their separation. The compatibilizing agent is usually a molecule with long chains that bind one end to the polymer matrix and the other end to the additives.

The composition and structure of these three components in the polymer compound determine its final properties.

By changing the type and amount of each of these components, polymer scientists and engineers can produce polymer compounds with desired properties for different applications.

Familiarity with types of polymer compounds

Here are some of the most common types of polymer compounds:

1- Based on the type of polymer matrix

  • Polyethylene (PE)-based compounds: It is one of the most widely used polymer compounds in various industries, including the production of water supply pipes, pressure pipes, plastic films, bags, car parts, and blowing films. These types of compounds are used in a wide range of applications due to their reasonable price, high flexibility, and resistance to chemicals.
  • Compounds based on polypropylene (PP): the second most used type of compounds that have a composite structure. Due to their high strength, hardness, heat resistance, and ease of processing, these compounds are used in applications such as auto parts, home appliances, fittings, and pipes. The matrix of these compounds consists of polypropylene and additives such as talc, glass fibers, and pigments.
  • Compounds based on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): These compounds are used in applications such as pipes, profiles, windows, and flooring due to their reasonable price, fire resistance, and ease of processing.
  • Compounds based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET): These compounds are used in applications such as soft drink bottles, polyethylene terephthalate films, and fibers due to their high strength, transparency, resistance to chemicals, and recyclability.
  • Polyamide (PA)-based compounds: These compounds are used in applications such as automotive parts, bearings, gears, and belts due to their high strength, resistance to wear, traction, and impact.

2- Types of compounds based on the type of additives

  • Reinforcing compounds: These types of compounds contain reinforcing materials such as glass fibers, carbon or metal, and nanoparticles, which increase strength and hardness. These compounds are used in applications such as aerospace, automobile, construction, and sports equipment.
  • Filler compounds: These types of compounds contain fillers or fillers such as calcium carbonate or talc, which reduce the cost of production and improve some properties. It is customary to use these compounds for things like pipes, profiles, and car parts.
  • Color compounds: These types of compounds contain pigments, pigments, and color additives that give the desired color to the polymer.
  • Flame retardant compounds: These compounds contain flame retardants that protect the plastic from fire. These compounds are used in applications such as wires and cables, electronic components, and household appliances.

Application of polymer compound

Polymer compounds are widely used in various industries due to their wide range of properties and advantages.

Some of the most important applications of polymer compounds are:

Production of pipes and fittings

One of the most important applications of polyethylene and polypropylene compounds is the production of water supply pipes, pressure pipes, sewage pipes, and related fittings. The proper properties of these compounds, such as resistance to corrosion and decay, make them suitable for this application.

Production of films and packaging products

Polyethylene compounds are widely used to produce various blown films, plastic bags, and packaging products.

Auto parts and household appliances

Polypropylene compounds reinforced with glass fibers or rubber materials are used to produce car parts such as bumpers, dashboards, and home appliance parts.

Electronics and electrical industries

Compounds reinforced with glass fibers or conductive nanoparticles for the production of electrical and electronic components such as cable coating and insulating materials, production of conductive polymer products

Disposable dishes

Polypropylene and polyethylene compounds are used in the production of all kinds of disposable containers, glasses, and dairy containers by thermoforming method.

As you can see, polymer compounds are used in a wide range of industries and applications due to their diversity and flexibility. With the advancement of technology and the development of new materials, it is expected that the applications of polymer compounds will increase in the future.

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The difference between compound and masterbatch

Compound and Masterbatch are both polymer materials that are used in different industries. However, there are key differences between the two substances. Polymer compounds are a mixture of base resin (polymer) with various additives such as reinforcements, fillers, pigments, stabilizers, and lubricants. These additives give the base polymer new properties or improve its existing properties. A polymer masterbatch is a concentrated mixture of pigment, additives, or both with a carrier resin (usually polyethylene or polypropylene). Masterbatches are used to dye or add properties to other polymers during the manufacturing process. Compounds are directly used as raw materials in various production processes such as injection molding, extrusion and blow molding. Masterbatches are added in small amounts to the base polymer to give it new color or properties and it is not possible to use it alone.

Property
Compound
Masterbatch
Definition
A mixture of base resin and additives
A concentrated mixture of pigments or additives with a carrier resin
Application
It is used directly in production processes
It is added to the base polymer
Advantages
Improved mechanical properties, light weight, corrosion resistance, flexibility, thermal and electrical insulation, recyclability
Ease of use, uniform dispersion, reasonable price
Disadvantages
High price, low variety
It may slightly reduce the mechanical properties of the base polymer

Advantages of using compounds

The use of polymer compounds has several advantages, which include:

  • Improving mechanical properties such as strength, hardness, impact resistance, etc.
  • Increasing thermal, oxidation, and chemical resistance.
  • Modification of electrical, optical, and other functional properties.
  • Reduce costs by using cheaper fillers.
  • Improving the ability to process and shape.
  • Adjust color, transparency, or other appearance properties.

The use of polymer compound is chosen as a raw material in many industries due to its unique properties, such as lightness, corrosion resistance, flexibility, and malleability. These materials can be produced in the form of complex molds, fibers, films, pipes, and other parts with high precision and quality.

Conclusion

Polymer compounds are special compounds that are formed by combining polymer with various additives. These additives can include fillers, pigments, softeners, antioxidants, processing aids, and more. The purpose of making polymer compounds is to achieve specific physical, chemical, and mechanical properties for different applications. Polymer compounds are produced through the process of melting and mixing basic polymers with various additives in a device called an extruder.

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